Yet the pan-EU labour market is one with nationally bounded social systems, and emigration has serious adverse impacts on the ability of several member states to ensure the well-being of their resident population. Emigration has hampered economic growth and slowed per capita income convergence in affected member states, as the significant outflow of skilled labour has reduced the size of the labour force and productivity. These impacts have been somewhat mitigated by the significant remittances sent to member states of origin. However, though remittances can function as ‘privatised automatic stabilisers’, they tend to shrink over time if people settle more permanently in the new country.



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